In baseball, warnings and penalties are used to maintain order and discipline on the field and to punish players and coaches who break the rules of the game. Here are some of the basic warnings and sanctions in baseball:
- Warning: A warning is a verbal or written notice from the umpire to a team, player or coach that a rule violation has occurred. It may be issued for a variety of infractions such as misbehaviour by players or coaches, use of prohibited items, and umpire ruling violations. After a warning, if the offence continues, more serious sanctions may be imposed.
- Ejection: This is the most serious sanction and will result in a player or coach being ejected from the game. This usually occurs after several warnings or for offences considered particularly serious. The ejected player or coach is no longer eligible to participate in the game and must leave the field of play.
- Penalty Base: In certain situations, when a player or coach commits an infraction, the umpire may award a penalty base that gives the opposing team an advantage. For example, if a throwing batter makes a false start, the runner on first base may be moved to second base.
- Substitutions: Teams may make substitutions of players during the game in accordance with league rules. However, there are restrictions on substitutions in certain situations, such as a pitching change.
- Cancellation of Attempt (Dead Ball): In some cases, when an infraction occurs during a game, the umpire may declare a “dead ball” and suspend play. This may affect the position of the runners and other aspects of the game.
- Penalty Pitches: In some cases, a team may be entitled to one or more penalty throws against a player of the opposing team.
- Penalty Box: In some forms of baseball, such as high school or amateur leagues, the practice of “penalty boxing” may be instituted, whereby suspended players must sit on the bench as a punishment.
Umpires in baseball are responsible for adjudicating warnings and on-field penalties in accordance with the rules and regulations of the league or competition.